An abnormal protrusion of internal organs through an abnormal opening in the cavity wall is known as a hernia. This illness is caused by a combination of elevated pressure inside the body and weakness in the wall.
Internal organs or parts of organs protrude out in this illness, causing a bulge that will grow in size with coughing, lifting weight, and passing stool and urine. Except with strangulated and irreducible hernias, the swelling goes inside while lying down.
1. A weakening of the bodily wall:
- Weakness that is present at birth.
- Muscle wasting, suppurative lesions in the wall, and the existence of weak natural apertures, obesity, lack of activity, and repeated pregnancies.
- Inadequate suturing or sepsis of the operative location during surgery.
2. An increase in internal pressure.
- Constipation is a chronic one.
- Cough that returns on a regular basis.
- Lifting weights.
- Urethral constriction
Hernias are commonly found in the following places
Hernias can develop in any part of the body. There are, however, certain common hernia sites. Because of the robust bone coating, the chest wall is typically unaffected. Due to the spine and back muscles, as well as tough ligaments and sheets, hernias in the lower back are uncommon.
The abdominal wall is the commonest place for hernias. Due to the presence of several natural orifices, the abdominal wall is weak in comparison to other sections.
There are some places of the abdomen where the muscles are weaker and thinner, which increases the risk of herniation.
The following are the most common hernia sites.
1. Inguinal hernia
Inguinal hernia is a type of hernia that occurs in the inguinal canal (a tube in the lower abdominal wall right above the inguinal ligament) is where the abdominal contents protrude. It can be seen from both sides males are more likely to have this kind.
Initially, the swelling occurs solely when you are straining and then subsides when you lie down. Later, a considerable section of the intestine may come out, and it may be difficult to return.
2. Femoral hernia
Females are more likely to have this sort of hernia. The abdominal contents move through the femoral canal, which can be seen right below the thigh-lower abdominal wall junction (Inside the femoral triangle).
The contents flow downhill and out through the saphenous hole in the leg, causing a swelling beneath the skin.
3. Umbilical hernia
This is a type of hernia that occurs when the umbilical cord. This is common in children. The umbilicus is the abdomen’s weakest link. While defecating, the contents of the abdomen may emerge as a bulb-like protrusion.
4. Incisional Hernia
In operated areas, these hernias are common. The operated site becomes weak as a result of faulty suturing or infections, resulting in a hernia.
5. Hernia in the stomach
The epigastrium is where the herniation occurs. It’s a rare species.
6. Lumbar hernia
This is a type of hernia that occurs in the lower back. The hernias develop on either side of the lumbar spine in this location (in the lumbar triangle). This is a rare type as well.
7. Hernia of the obturator
This is a very uncommon kind of hernia. The contents of the stomach pass via the obturator foramen in the pelvic bone here.
Hernia complications include
If the hernial orifice is narrow, abdominal contents may have difficulty returning, and blood flow to herniated tissues may be blocked as a result of constriction. The protruded intestine may die as a result of this.
2) Obstruction of the intestines:
When the entire length of the intestine protrudes into the hernial sac, this occurs. The bowels will be obstructed by the narrow hernial orifice.
3) Peritonitis and infection:
If a portion of the intestine is strangulated and dies, the infection will spread to the abdomen, resulting in peritonitis.
Initial treatment: The following steps may be helpful in the early stages of hernia.
- Hernia belt use: For each type of hernia, different types of hernia belts are available. This will stop the protrusion and alleviate the pain.
- Constipation, recurring cough, urinary blockage, and other similar symptoms should be addressed.
- Weight loss Abdominal wall strength will improve when fat is lost.
- Muscle-tone-increasing abdominal exercises
- For simple bowel movements, eat plenty of green vegetables, fruits, and a fibre diet.
- Experiment with various systems, such as homoeopathy, herbal medicine, and so on.
- If the preceding steps do not provide relief, visit a general surgeon about surgical options.
Surgical intervention is required.
Depending on the type and severity of the hernia, the following procedures are performed.
The contents of the hernial sac are pushed into the belly, the sac’s neck is ligated with transfixion ligature, and the sac is cut off in this procedure.
The posterior wall is repaired in addition to the herniotomy.
This procedure is used when a herniotomy is not possible due to the sac’s broad neck. Non-absorbable materials such as tantalum gauze, polypropylene mesh, or stainless steel mesh are used to patch the wound.