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Premenstrual syndrome

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Premenstrual syndrome

By Rawlings Oke Godwin

On 1 Jan, 2022

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Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome, also known as PMS, affects more than 90% of menstruating women at some point in their life. PMS is an umbrella phrase that refers to a variety of physical and mental changes that women experience in the days leading up to their monthly menstruation. Alterations in hormone levels are known to cause these changes.

Possible Causes

Premenstrual syndrome symptoms may be caused by increased levels of various hormones.

  • Breast soreness is caused by the pituitary gland secreting too much prolactin. Excessive prolactin secretion can also cause irregular periods and interfere with ovulation.
  • The adrenal glands also produce another hormone called aldosterone. After ovulation, aldosterone levels usually rise. This hormone causes fluid retention, which in some women causes bloating, headaches, and breast swelling.
  • Some women’s brains don’t use the mood-stabilizing chemical serotonin well, leading to depression or anxiety.
  • The pituitary gland may generate fewer endorphins, which can lead to depression and greater pain sensitivity.
  • Increased insulin sensitivity can lead to low blood sugar episodes, which can lead to irritation.

Why variation?

It is unclear why some women have PMS while others do not. Women who have a close blood relative who suffers from Premenstrual syndrome are more prone to have the condition themselves. Symptoms vary in nature and severity from one woman to the next. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD, is a more severe type of PMS.

Premenstrual syndrome & Menopause.

PMS tends to get worse as a woman approaches menopause. PMS-like symptoms can also be produced by large hormonal changes in a woman’s body (such as those that occur during pregnancy), hormonal contraceptives, or a miscarriage or childbirth.


Treatment Options

Psychological treatment

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

The combined oral contraceptive pill


gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues. These medicines are only used for very severe PMS

Is there a way to avoid Premenstrual syndrome

1. Talk to your family, friends, or partner about it.

It may assist them in comprehending how you are feeling. It’s probably better to do this after your menstruation has ended and your symptoms have subsided.

2. Exercise.

Some women who exercise regularly claim to have fewer PMS symptoms. Several times a week, try to get some regular exercise.

3. Food and drink are provided.

Some people think that certain diets can help with PMS. However, there is minimal evidence that this is true based on scientific experiments.

5. Caffeine and alcohol consumption should be reduced.

Some women find that drinking alcohol or caffeine (found in tea, coffee, cola, and other beverages) exacerbates their symptoms.

What’s the prognosis (prognosis)?

PMS tends to vary in terms of how bothersome or not it is. As a result, there may be moments in your life when it has little effect on you, and other times when it has a significant impact.


Female Hormones

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